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The EU is part of three customs unions with Turkey, Andorra and San Marino respectively.
Existence of a Customs Union means that there is:
- free movement of goods between the two parts of the customs union for goods (either wholly produced or put in free circulation after their importation from third countries)
- alignment on external tariff, including preferential arrangements, and harmonization of commercial policy measures
- creating common standards in customs laws, and providing mutual assistance in customs matters
- creating sommon standards in some other laws (intellectual property, competition, taxation, etc)
Exchanges between the EU and the countries with which EU has a Customs Union are covered by two different types of laws:
1) products covered by the Customs Union will be able to circulate freely within it if they are
- wholly obtained or produced in the Customs Union
- coming from third countries and have been through all the necessary customs formalities (including, when necessary, the payment of customs duties).
2) for products not covered by the Customs Union, most of the time the trade will be based on the FTA concluded between the partners involved and the Rules of Origin will be established in the relevant Protocols.
In all cases, the products will have to be accompanied by a document proving either their status and/or their origin.
The customs union with Turkey has been in force since 1995 and is based on the 1963 Ankara Agreement and its Additional Protocol (1970).
The scope of the customs union with Turkey is limited to industrial products and processed agricultural products.
Goods which are wholly obtained or produced in the Customs Union or which have been put into free circulation in the Cutsoms Union can circulate anywhere in the territory of the Customs Union, as long as they are accompanied by the proof of this customs status, established by an A.TR. movement certificate.
The Customs Union does not cover:
- agricultural products, as defined in Annex I of the Amsterdam Treaty;
- coal and steel products, as covered by the European Coal and Steel Treaty.
These goods are subject to the following preferential agreements :
- European Coal and Steel Community -Turkey Agreement on a free trade area for products covered by the ECSC
- Decision of 1998 on the trade regime for agricultural products.
Rules of Origin with Turkey
|Rules of origin*||Cumulation|
|Rules applicable to industrial products (art. 3)|
|Rules of origin for coal and steel products||Bilateral and diagonal cumulation|
|Rules of origin for agricultural products||Bilateral and diagonal cumulation|
*Rules applicable to goods covered by the Customs Union
- General information on the customs union and preferential arrangements for Turkey
- EU Delegation in Turkey
The agricultural products are subject to the following preferential agreements:
- Products in Chapters 1-24 of the Harmonised System originating in Andorra are exempt from import duties when imported into the EU. Legislation, amendment 1999, amendment 2003
- Specific Preferential treatment for some tobaccos manufactured in the EU imported into Andorra.
Rules of Origin for Andorra
Rules applicable to goods covered by the Customs Union:
Rules of origin
Rules of origin applicable to tobacco
EU-San Marino agreement on cooperation and customs union (2002) has been in force since 1991
Customs Union covers products of Chapters 1 to 97 of the Common Customs Tariff, except products falling within the scope of the Treaty establishing the European Coal and Steel Community
Rules of Origin for San Marino