Technical harmonisation within the European Union (EU) aims at harmonising the essential requirements that products must meet when they are put on the market, by applying the "general reference to standards" formula and the principle of mutual recognition in order to eliminate technical obstacles to the free movement of goods. Such technical specifications shall vary depending on the category of products considered
Any product or kit which is produced and placed on the market for incorporation in construction works must meet standardisation mandates and harmonised technical specifications before being put on the EU market.
Toys imported into the EU must adhere to special safety requirements that are specific to the intended age group, as well as traceability requirements.
Explosives imported into the EU that are intended for civil use are subject to an EU Directive based on the UN's recommendation on the transport of dangerous goods.
These technical standards are only required for theatrical pyrotechnic articles (designed for indoor or outdoor stage use, including film and television productions or similar use), fireworks and other pyrotechnic articles for technical purposes.
The import of lifts into Europe (which are to be permanently installed in buildings) must satisfy health and safety requirements such as capacity limits, fire safety, maintenance before being put on the EU market.
The design and construction of machinery must meet requirements the mandatory essential health and safety requirements to be satisfied before being marketed in the EU in order to eliminate any risk of accident.
(Only required for clothing falling under the scope of Directive 89/686/EEC). More information can be found here.
Personal protective equipment (PPE) must comply with the essential requirements in order to be placed on the European Union (EU) market.
(Only required for vessels, piping, safety accessories, pressure accessories and its assemblies with a maximum allowable pressure (PS) greater than 0.5 bar) Imports of pressure vessels, piping, safety accessories and pressure accessories into the EU must meet the requirements for design, manufacture and conformity assessment.
Technical standards for simple pressure vessels
This is only required for welded vessels intended to contain air or nitrogen.
(Only required for electrical or electronic appliances)
Any electrical and electronic apparatus is subject to the compliance with mandatory essential requirements established by the Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) Directive to ensure that their performance is protected against electromagnetic disturbances.
Only required for gas appliances used for cooking, heating, hot water production, refrigeration, lighting, washing and ironing, other than appliances specifically designed for use in industrial processes carried out on industrial premises.
Any household gas appliances (including forced drought burners) need to meet mandatory health and safety requirements concerning ignition, durability, and energy consumption, among others.
Technical standards for low voltage electrical equipment
(Only required for electrical equipment designed for the use with a voltage rating between 50 and 1000V for alternating current and between 75 and 1500V for direct current)
Radio and telecommunications terminal equipment put on the EU market must follow rules for personal health and safety, electromagnetic compatibility, as well as harmonised standards and conformity assessment.
EU legislation has harmonised technical requirements for three categories of motor vehicles (passenger cars, motorcycles and tractors) as well as their trailers, systems, components and separate technical units. Buses, coaches, commercial vehicles and trucks are subject to the technical approval procedures of each Member State.
Imports of recreational crafts (including personal water crafts) must adhere to harmonised standards and conformity assessments.
Imports into the EU of market fishing vessels of 24 metres in length and above must comply with safety requirements and compliance certificates as stated by EU rules.
(Only required for life rafts) EU imports of life-saving appliances, navigation equipment, radio communication equipment, and other marine products need to meet conformity standards to prevent marine pollution and fire risk.
Safety requirements and the appropriate certificates are required for new and existing passenger ships of 24 meters in length and above and high speed passenger craft engaged in domestic voyages within an EU Member State.
Imports of civil aircrafts (including its parts) must meet EU requirements for the product's airworthiness, integrity, operation and organisational structure.
EU imports of structural and operational aspects of rail transport are subject to an EU Directive.
The provisions of the Directive apply to the following type of automatic weighing instruments, intended to determine the mass of a body by using the action of gravity on that body, without the intervention of an operator
Material measures of length must meet requirements in regards to their materials, markings, reference conditions, and maximum possible errors.
Ecodesign of energy-using products
The EU has established a framework under which manufacturers of energy-using products (EuP) must, at the design stage, reduce the energy consumption and other negative environmental impacts that occur during the product's life cycle. Information concerning the product's environmental performance and energy efficiency must also be visible if possible on the product itself, thus allowing consumers to compare before purchasing.
Ecodesign requirements for air conditioners and comfort fans
Ecodesign requirements for glandless circulators
Ecodesign requirements for fans
Ecodesign requirements for water pumps
Ecodesign requirements for non-directional household lamps
Ecodesign requirements for external power supplies
Ecodesign requirements for electric motors
(Only required for electric motors under Commission Regulation (EC) No 640/2009)
Ecodesign requirements for simple set-top boxes
Ecodesign requirements for directional lamps, LED lamps and related equipment
(Only required for directional lamps and LED lamps)
Ecodesign requirements for power transformers
Ecodesign requirements for computers and computer servers
(Only required for notebook computers (including tablet computers, slate computers and mobile thin clients)
Ecodesign requirements for tertiary lighting equipment
Ecodesign requirements for standby and off mode, and networked standby, electric power consumption of electrical and electronic household and office equipment
Energy efficient products
Besides the obligations imposed by the EU's Ecodesign Directive on the reduction of energy consumption and other negative environmental impacts when manufacturing energy-using products (EuP), the EU's Energy Labelling Directive establishes a framework for labelling and consumer information regarding energy consumption of energy-related products. The objective is to allow consumers to make informed purchasing decisions based on energy consumption and to encourage manufacturers to design more efficient products to meet consumer demand. The following list of requirements cover the provisions laid down by both Directives for certain energy-using products
Energy efficiency requirements for household tumble driers
Energy efficiency requirements for household washing machines
Energy efficiency requirements for household refrigerating appliances
Energy efficiency requirements for domestic cooking appliances
(Only required for electric mains-operated household refrigerating appliances with a storage volume up to 1 500 litres)
Energy efficiency requirements for vacuum cleaners
Energy efficiency requirements for ventilation units
Energy efficiency requirements for space heaters and combination heaters
Energy efficiency requirements for water heaters and hot water storage tanks
Energy efficiency requirements for professional refrigerating equipment
Ecodesign requirements for power transformers
Energy efficiency requirements for televisions
Energy efficiency requirements for household dishwashers