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Policy Evaluation

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  1. Policy Evaluation: Impact of trade chapters of the Euro-Mediterranean Association Agreements with six partners: Algeria, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco and Tunisia - Summary of the Staff Working Document
    • Abstract: The purpose of the evaluation was to assess the extent to which the objectives of Euro-Med FTAs were met. This was achieved by following four criteria: effectiveness, efficiency, coherence and relevance. The evaluation period covered data available three years prior to the date the Euro-Med FTAs came into the force up to the latest available data.
    • 10 November 2021
    • Type: Issues and policies
    • Source: Commission
    • Format: PDF
  2. Policy Evaluation: Consultation Strategy - Study in support of an impact assessment to prepare the review of GSP Regulation No 978/2012
    • Abstract: This document sets out the strategy and actions planned to be undertaken in the context of preparing the “study in support of an impact assessment to prepare the review of GSP Regulation No 978/2012”, which is undertaken by a team led by BKP Economic Advisors GmbH (BKP). The document has been prepared based on an initial consultations plan presented by BKP as part of the proposal for the study, and takes into account the outline consultation strategy included in the Commission’s inception impact assessment,1 as well as the work undertaken during the study’s inception phase. The consultation strategy is also based on the guidelines for consultations as set out in the European Commission’s Better Regulation toolbox2 as well as the Commission’s minimum standards for consultation of interested parties.3 This document describes the consultation objectives and scope (section 2), the identification of key stakeholders in the EU and GSP beneficiary countries, including those expected to be affected by a new EU GSP regulation (section 3), as well as the various planned consultation means and activities (section 4) and the planned reporting on the consultation activities and feedback received (section 5).
    • 18 May 2020
    • Type: Official document
    • Source: Commission
    • Format: PDF
  3. Policy Evaluation: Executive Summary - Study in support of an impact assessment to prepare the review of GSP Regulation No 978/2012
    • Abstract: The purpose of the study is to support an impact assessment to be undertaken by the Commission with respect to different policy options for a Generalised Scheme of Preferences in the form of a GSP regulation to apply after the current GSP Regulation expires at the end of 2023. To this effect, the study focusses on a number of distinct policy options defined by the Commission, and assesses their potential economic, social, human rights and environmental impacts both in GSP beneficiary countries and the EU, while also considering legal, institutional and procedural issues. The study builds on a mid-term evaluation of the current GSP Regulation, published in 2018, and is prepared in line with the procedure laid out in the Commission’s Inception Impact Assessment, which in May 2019 launched the preparations for the new GSP Regulation.
    • 18 May 2020
    • Type: Official document
    • Source: Commission
    • Format: PDF
  4. Policy Evaluation: Inception report - Study in support of an impact assessment to prepare the review of GSP Regulation No 978/2012
    • Abstract: The purpose of the study is to support an impact assessment to be undertaken by the Commission with respect to different policy options for a Generalised Scheme of Preferences (GSP) in the form of a GSP regulation to apply after the current GSP Regulation1 expires at the end of 2023. To this effect, the study focusses on a number of distinct policy options for the future GSP that have been defined by the Commission, and assesses their potential economic, social, human rights and environmental impacts. The study will be implemented over a period of 12 months, with a draft final report expected for August 2020. This inception report is the first deliverable under the contract (due 2 months following the kick-off meeting). It focuses on a presentation of the methodology and is structured as follows. ▪ Chapter 2 sets out the proposed methodology for the various research areas to be addressed in the study (Task A.1); ▪ Chapter 3 makes references to the proposed consultation strategy (Task A.2), with the full plan being provided in Appendix B; ▪ Chapter 4 outlines the work undertaken in terms of establishing the study website and preparing for electronic communications (Task A.3), again with more details being provided in the consultations plan in Appendix B; and ▪ Chapter 5 summarises the proposed study programme.
    • 18 May 2020
    • Type: Official document
    • Source: Commission
    • Format: PDF
  5. Policy Evaluation: Annexes to the Euro-Med Interim Report
    • Abstract: Descriptive and econometric analysis of historical trade flows Descriptive statistical analyses are standard elements of many quantitative studies on the Euro-Med FTAs. They typically involve an analysis of trends of economic variables of interesting order to first identify the nature of developments (directions and magnitudes of changes) as well as a possible correlation between the different variables. Such analysis is often used as a stand-alone approach or one that supports econometric or computable general equilibrium (CGE) modelling. As foreshadowed in the description of the general evaluation approach, particularly in ex post studies, researchers have the benefit of knowing what actually happened to trade flows and other economic indicators.
    • 31 March 2020
    • Type: Official document
    • Source: Commission
    • Format: PDF
  6. Policy Evaluation: Interim technical report - Euro-Med
    • Abstract: This Interim Report provides an ex-post evaluation of the impact of trade chapters of the Euro-Mediterranean Association Agreements with six partners (Algeria, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco and Tunisia). It has been commissioned by the Directorate General for Trade (DG TRADE) of the European Commission and it is being implemented by the Consortium consisting of the Center for Social and Economic Research (CASE) and Ecorys, supported by the Euro-Mediterranean Forum of Institutes of Economic Sciences (FEMISE). The purpose of the ex-post evaluation is to assess the achievement of the main objectives of the trade chapters of the Euro-Mediterranean Association Agreements (thereafter Euro-Med FTAs, FTAs). The Euro-Mediterranean Association Agreements were conceived to help achieve the objectives of the 1995 Barcelona Declaration1, signed by EU Member States and Southern Mediterranean Countries (SMCs), including the six countries considered in this ex-post evaluation. The Declaration aimed at creating an area of shared prosperity in the Mediterranean region, which was to be achieved by sustainable socio-economic development, improved conditions of living, increased employment and closer regional cooperation and integration. The idea was to promote sustainable growth and improve living standards in SMCs as means to promoting stability and easing migratory pressures.
    • 31 March 2020
    • Type: Official document
    • Source: Commission
    • Format: PDF
  7. Policy Evaluation: Evaluation Roadmap of the EU-Georgia and the EU-Moldova Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Areas
    • Abstract: The Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area (“DCFTA”) included within the EU’s Association Agreements with Georgia and Moldova respectively, aims at opening up markets on both sides (the EU and the partner country), increasing the stability and predictability of the trade and investment environment, and promoting sustainable development. These two DCFTAs have been applied provisionally since 1 September 2014, and entered into full effect on 1 July 2016. The DCFTAs with Georgia and Moldova are amongst the first of a new generation of EU free trade agreements (FTAs), characterised by their deep and comprehensive nature and high level of ambition. The DCFTAs cover elimination of tariffs on trade in goods as well as the reduction of non-tariff barriers to trade in goods, services and investment (market access). In addition, the DCFTAs contain a unique commitment on the part of Georgia and Moldova to approximate their national legislation to the EU acquis in selected policy areas, such as technical regulation and standards, intellectual property rights, public procurement, services (e.g. financial and telecommunication services), sanitary and phytosanitary measures, competition and customs procedures. The DCFTAs also have a chapter on trade and sustainable development that integrates the objective of sustainable development in all those policy areas. The justification and need for the present evaluation arises from a number of sources: In its “Trade for All” strategy, the Commission committed itself to “enhancing the analysis of the impact of trade policy on consumers both in impact assessments and ex-post evaluations”.  The two DCFTAs also contain built-in review clauses, which invite the Parties to consider accelerating and broadening the scope of elimination of custom duties on trade between the Parties. In the case of Georgia, the review shall take place five years after the entry into force; whereas for Moldova the timeline for a review is specified only for agricultural products –three years after the entry into force (and it has already been carried out).  The DCFTAs also foresee a deepening of market access through further regulatory convergence in certain of the above-mentioned areas.
    • 3 February 2020
    • Type: Official document
    • Source: Commission
    • Format: PDF
  8. Policy Evaluation: Terms of Reference - Columbia, Peru and Ecuador
    • Abstract: The purpose of the project to be produced under this contract is to provide an ex post evaluation of the implementation of the EU-Colombia/Peru/Ecuador Trade Agreement (hereafter “the Agreement”). It will form the basis for a Staff Working Document (SWD), which will be drafted by the Commission after the end of the project. The project shall analyse the impact of the implementation of the Agreement on sustainable development in its economic, social and environmental dimensions, as well as on human rights including labour rights, as mentioned in the Trade for All communication. In particular, the project will examine the effectiveness and efficiency of the Agreement and its implementation in view of achieving its policy objectives; its relevance with respect to the current trade and economic needs and challenges facing the EU, Colombia, Peru and Ecuador; and its coherence with the objectives of both EU trade and development policies.
    • 24 October 2019
    • Type: Official document
    • Source: Commission
    • Format: PDF
  9. Policy Evaluation: Final Inception Report - Evaluation of the impact of trade chapters of the EuroMediterranean Association Agreements with six partners: Algeria, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco and Tunisia
    • Abstract: The Directorate General for Trade (DG TRADE) of the European Commission has commissioned an evaluation of the impact of trade chapters of the Euro-Mediterranean Association Agreements with six partners: Algeria, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco and Tunisia to the Consortium consisting of CASE – Center for Social and Economic Research and Ecorys, supported by FEMISE (the Euro-Mediterranean Forum of Institutes of Economic Sciences). The purpose of the evaluation is to assess the effectiveness, efficiency, relevance and coherence of the trade chapters of the Association Agreements. In the rest of this report, the trade chapters of the Association Agreements will be referred to as Euro-Med free trade agreements (“Euro-Med FTAs”). The Euro-Mediterranean Association Agreements were conceived to help achieve the objectives of the 1995 Barcelona Declaration, signed by 15 EU Member States and 12 Southern Mediterranean Countries (SMCs), including all six countries considered in this evaluation. The Declaration aimed at creating an area of shared prosperity in the Mediterranean region, which was to be achieved by sustainable socio-economic development, improved conditions of living, increased employment and closer regional cooperation and integration. The idea was to promote sustainable growth and improve living standards in SMCs as means to promoting stability and easing migratory pressures on Europe.
    • 1 July 2019
    • Type: Official document
    • Source: Commission
    • Format: PDF
  10. Policy Evaluation: Inception Impact Assessment GSP Post 2023
    • Abstract: In 1968, the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) recommended the creation of a 'Generalised System of Tariff Preferences'. Under such schemes, developed countries would unilaterally grant reductions in the tariffs paid on imports from developing countries, in order to promote developing countries’ export earnings, industrialisation and rates of economic growth. In 1971, the members of the General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs (GATT), the predecessor to the World Trade Organisation (WTO), followed the lead of UNCTAD and enabled its members to grant differential and more favourable treatment to developing countries without according such treatment to other members through what is now known as the “Enabling Clause”, which grants a permanent exemption from the most favoured nation principle (MFN). In response to this, the EU has since 1971 maintained a Generalised System of Preferences (GSP) that provides developing country exporters with a vital access to EU markets and contributes to their economic growth. The EU GSP has through the decades changed form, in terms of the countries and products covered; but has always had the prime objective of fostering the sustainable economic, social and environmental development of developing countries, with the primary aim of eradicating poverty. The current EU regulation that governs GSP came into force on 1 January 2014 and will expire on 31 December 2023 (Regulation (EU) No 978/2012 of the European Parliament and the Council of 25 October 2012 applying a scheme of generalised tariff preferences). A mid-term evaluation of this regulation was finalised in October 2018. This evaluation assessed whether the existing GSP Regulation is meeting its objectives and gave ideas on what improvements could be made in view of putting into place a new EU GSP. Problem
    • 13 June 2019
    • Type: Other
    • Source: Commission
    • Format: PDF
  11. Policy Evaluation: Ex-post evaluation of the EPA between the EU and its Member States and the CARIFORUM Member States - Inception Report
    • Abstract: The EPA provides for an asymmetric and progressive opening of trade in goods and services. It is asymmetric because CARIFORUM goods enter the EU duty and quota free, whilst CARIFORUM States maintain customs duties on sensitive products. It is progressive because CARIFORUM tariff reduction is spread over a 25-year transition period in the interest of insulating regional governments from any sudden loss in fiscal receipts and in protecting domestic producers from having to face immediate competition from EU exports. Some country-specific commitments on trade in services were also set. A number of measures are also taken for trade in services and other trade related areas, as discussed in subsequent chapters. The stated objectives of the EPAs are (1) the reduction and eventual eradication of poverty; (2) the promotion of regional economic integration and cooperation; (3) the strengthening of the region’s integration in the world economy; (4) the improvement of the region’s capacities in terms of trade policy and trade-related issues; (5) the establishment and implementation of an effective, predictable and transparent regulatory framework for trade and investment in the region, (6) the improvement of the role of the private-sector; and (7) the reinforcement of the relations between the Parties (the CARIFORUM countries concerned and the EU Member States) on the basis of solidarity and mutual interest.
    • 1 June 2019
    • Type: Official document
    • Source: Other source
    • Format: PDF
  12. Policy Evaluation: Evaluation Roadmap of the EU-Central America Association Agreement
    • Abstract: The European Union-Central America Association Agreementi aims at opening up markets on both sides, increasing the stability and predictability of the trade and investment environment and promoting sustainable development. The EU signed the Association Agreement (hereafter “the Agreement”) with Central America on 29 June 2012. Part IV of the Agreement, covering trade, has been provisionally applied as from 1 August 2013 with Nicaragua, Honduras and Panama, from 1 October 2013 with El Salvador and Costa Rica and finally from 1 December 2013 with Guatemala. The Agreement is one of the first of a new generation of EU free trade agreements (FTAs), characterized by their comprehensive nature and high level of ambition. Part IV of the Agreement (“Trade”) covers elimination of tariffs on trade in goods, a reduction of non-tariff barriers to trade in goods, services and investment (market access), and provisions on inter alia competition, government procurement, protection of intellectual property rights, transparency in regulation, and trade and sustainable development. The rationale for the present evaluation stems from the EU’s Better Regulation policy, which requires every Directorate-General of the European Commission to undertake periodic evaluation of all EU interventions under their responsibility1. It also reflects a general commitment of the Parties to monitor the implementation and evaluate the results of the application of the trade part of the Agreement (see Article 346), as well as from specific provisions dedicated to a particular area (Article 293 under Title VII on Trade and Sustainable Development). However, the overall scope of the present evaluation is broader, covering all provisions in the trade part of the Agreement that are already provisionally applied. The findings of the evaluation will be relevant to the ongoing implementation of the Agreement and may be used as a basis for discussions with the partner countries on lessons to be drawn regarding its implementation. It is also important to evaluate the trade provisions of the Agreement after five years, as the lessons learnt from its current implementation could serve as a basis for improving the design of EU FTAs being negotiated with other third countries. It could provide a valuable input for the implementation of FTAs that have been recently concluded.
    • 13 May 2019
    • Type: Official document
    • Source: Commission
    • Format: PDF
  13. Policy Evaluation: DOCUMENT DE TRAVAIL DES SERVICES DE LA COMMISSION SYNTHÈSE DE L'ÉVALUATION
    • Abstract: En 2016, la direction générale du commerce (DG TRADE) de la Commission européenne a commandé une évaluation de la mise en œuvre de l’accord de libre-échange entre l’UE et ses États membres, d’une part, et la République de Corée, d’autre part (ci-après l’ «ALE») auprès d’un consultant externe — Civic Consulting and Ifo Institute. L’accord est appliqué à titre provisoire depuis le 1er juillet 2011. Se caractérisant par son caractère global et son niveau d’ambition élevé, il inaugure une nouvelle génération d’accords commerciaux de l’UE et il est le premier à être conclu entre l’UE et un pays asiatique. L’évaluation avait pour objectif de fournir une analyse ex post approfondie du fonctionnement de l’ALE UE-Corée et de tirer parti de l’expérience acquise pour améliorer la conception et la mise en œuvre d’autres accords commerciaux de l’UE. L’évaluation a dès lors porté sur l’efficacité et l’efficience de l’ALE UE-Corée par rapport à ses objectifs, sur sa pertinence pour traiter de questions commerciales d’actualité et sur sa cohérence avec l’accord-cadre UE-Corée et les objectifs de la politique commerciale de l’UE. L’analyse de l’efficacité de l’ALE a comporté une évaluation de ses effets sur le développement durable du point de vue économique, social et environnemental ainsi que sur les droits de l’homme. La période d’évaluation démarre avec le début de l’application provisoire de l’ALE, soit le 1er juillet 2011, et prend fin avec les dernières données disponibles au commencement de l’évaluation (2014-2016).
    • Languages:
    • 7 March 2019
    • Type: Official document
    • Source: Commission
    • Format: PDF
  14. Policy Evaluation: Staff working Documents for the Evaluation
    • Abstract: The Free Trade Agreement (FTA) between the EU and its Member States and the Republic of Korea (hereafter referred to as “Korea”) is the first of a new generation of FTAs, characterised by its comprehensive nature and high level of ambition. It was considered important to conduct an evaluation of the implementation of the EU-Korea FTA, in line with the European Commission's new trade strategy "Trade for All”, as the lessons learned could help improve the implementation of this current FTA, the design of other EU FTAs that are currently being negotiated, as well as improve the implementation of EU FTAs that have been recently concluded. The conclusions of this evaluation can be further compared with the analysis carried out in the Trade Sustainable Impact Assessment (SIA) of the EU-Korea FTA,1 which was carried out in 2007-2008 and which provides an in-depth analysis of the potential impacts of the FTA, in order to determine whether and to what extent these potential expected impacts have taken place.
    • 7 March 2019
    • Type: Official document
    • Source: Other source
    • Format: PDF
  15. Policy Evaluation: ARBEITSUNTERLAGE DER KOMMISSIONSDIENSTSTELLEN ZUSAMMENFASSUNG DER BEWERTUNG
    • Abstract: Die Generaldirektion Handel der Europäischen Kommission (GD Handel) beauftragte 2016 die externen Beratungsunternehmen Civic Consulting und Ifo Institut mit einer Bewertung der Umsetzung des Freihandelsabkommens zwischen der EU und ihren Mitgliedstaaten und der Republik Korea (im Folgenden „Freihandelsabkommen“). Das Freihandelsabkommen EU-Korea wird seit dem 1. Juli 2011 vorläufig angewandt. Es ist das erste einer neuen Generation von umfassenden und ehrgeizigen Handelsabkommen der EU und das erste, das die EU mit einem asiatischen Land abgeschlossen hat. Zweck der Bewertung war es, eine eingehende Ex-post-Analyse der bisherigen Bilanz des Freihandelsabkommens EU-Korea zu erstellen und daraus Lehren für die Verbesserung der Ausgestaltung und Umsetzung anderer Freihandelsabkommen der EU zu ziehen. Evaluiert wurden daher die Wirksamkeit und Effizienz des Freihandelsabkommens EU-Korea hinsichtlich der Verwirklichung der angestrebten Ziele, seine Relevanz im Lichte aktueller Handelsfragen sowie seine Kohärenz mit dem Rahmenabkommen EU-Korea und den Zielen der Handelspolitik der EU. Die Analyse der Wirksamkeit des Freihandelsabkommens beinhaltete eine Bewertung seines Beitrags zu einer wirtschaftlich, sozial und ökologisch nachhaltigen Entwicklung sowie zu den Menschenrechten. Der Bewertungszeitraum beginnt mit dem ersten Tag der vorläufigen Anwendung des Freihandelsabkommens, dem 1. Juli 2011, und erfasst die bis zum Beginn der Bewertungsarbeiten verfügbaren Daten (20142016).
    • Languages:
    • 7 March 2019
    • Type: Official document
    • Source: Commission
    • Format: PDF
  16. Policy Evaluation: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY OF THE EVALUATION
    • Abstract: In 2016 the Directorate General for Trade (DG TRADE) of the European Commission has commissioned an evaluation of the implementation of the Free Trade Agreement between the EU and its Member States and the Republic of Korea (hereinafter referred to as “FTA”) to an external consultant - Civic Consulting and Ifo Institute. The EU-Korea FTA has been provisionally applied since 1 July 2011. It is the first of a new generation of EU trade agreements, characterised by its comprehensive nature and high level of ambition, and the first one concluded by the EU with an Asian country. The purpose of the evaluation was to provide an in-depth ex-post analysis of the performance of the EU-Korea FTA, as well as to use the lessons learned to improve the design and the implementation of other EU trade agreements. Accordingly, the evaluation examined the effectiveness and efficiency of the EU-Korea FTA in view of achieving its objectives, its relevance for addressing current trade issues and its coherence with the EU-Korea Framework Agreement and the objectives of the EU trade policy. The analysis of the FTA effectiveness included an assessment of its impact on sustainable development in its economic, social and environmental dimensions, as well as on human rights. The evaluation period covered the time from the start of the provisional application of the FTA - 1 July 2011 - until the latest available data at the start of the evaluation - 2014 - 2016.
    • 7 March 2019
    • Type: Official document
    • Source: Commission
    • Format: PDF
  17. South Korea: Evaluation of the Implementation of the Free Trade Agreement between the EU and its Member States and the Republic of Korea
    • Abstract: This report is the evaluation’s final deliverable. Its purpose is to present the work undertaken in the context of the stakeholder consultations, case studies, and specific analyses (tasks 6, 7, and 8 of the TOR, respectively), to answer the evaluation questions, and to provide conclusions and recommendations.
    • 6 March 2019
    • Type: Official document
    • Source: Commission
    • Format: PDF
  18. Policy Evaluation: Terms of Reference Cariforum
    • Abstract: The Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA) between the EU and its Member States and the Member States of the Caribbean Forum (CARIFORUM)1 has been concluded in 2007. The EU and 14 CARIFORUM States have been applying the agreement provisionally since 2008.2 By the end of 2017, 22 EU Member States and 10 CARIFORUM States had ratified the EPA. The Agreement covers provisions on not only trade in goods, but also trade in services and provisions on competition, innovation and intellectual property, transparency in public procurement and trade and sustainable development. Development cooperation is an integral part of the Agreement and areas for cooperation are set out in the Agreement.
    • 12 October 2018
    • Type: Official document
    • Source: Commission
    • Format: PDF
  19. Policy Evaluation: Cariforum Evaluation Roadmap
    • Abstract: The Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA) between the EU and 14 Member States of the Caribbean Forum (CARIFORUM) has been provisionally applied since 2008.1 The EU-CARIFORUM (CF) EPA covers provisions on trade in goods, but also in services, as well as provisions on trade-related issues (including competition, innovation and intellectual property, transparency in public procurement and trade and sustainable development). Development cooperation is an integral part of the agreement
    • 19 July 2018
    • Type: Official document
    • Source: Commission
    • Format: PDF
  20. Policy Evaluation: Evaluation of the Implementation of the Free Trade Agreement between the EU and its Member States and the Republic of Korea - Interim Technical Report Part 2: Stakeholder Consultation Report
    • Abstract: A 12-week open public consultation on the implementation of the Free Trade Agreement between the EU and its Member States and the Republic of Korea was carried out from December 2016 to March 2017. In addition to the public consultation, two targeted surveys were conducted: a survey on consumer interests and sustainable development (survey on consumers) and a survey on small- and medium-sized enterprises (survey on SMEs). These surveys were also carried out from December 2016 to March 2017.1 This report summarises the results of the public consultation, the survey on consumers, and the survey on SMEs. As the survey on consumers consisted of a subset of questions from the public consultation that were more relevant to consumer organisations and NGOs,2 the results of the survey on consumers are presented together with the results of the public consultation.
    • 1 June 2017
    • Type: Other
    • Source: Commission
    • Format: PDF

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