List of terms in glossary:
Refund for duties previously paid on non-originating materials that were used to produce a final good exported under a preferential tariff.
Trade and development arrangements between the EU and the African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) countries - designed to facilitate the ACPs' integration into the world economy through gradual trade liberalisation and improved trade-related cooperation. They are set within the framework of the EU-ACP Partnership Agreement (known as the Cotonou agreement) that governs relations between the EU and the ACP countries.
Under the EPAs, EU markets are immediately and fully opened, while the ACPs have 15 years to open to EU imports (with protection for sensitive imports) and even up to 25 years in exceptional cases.
What is e-commerce?
Trade is today greatly facilitated by online platforms for e-commerce. These can either be individual e-commerce platforms, i.e. own online shops, or hosted platforms where a firm offers an interface and usually back-office software for different sellers and buyers (for example Ebay or Amazon). E-commerce platforms facilitate trade because they enable sellers from one country to get easily in touch with customers from other countries. Sellers can advertise and offer their goods and services on such platforms to many potential customers. Similarly, such platforms facilitate the search for adequate products for customers as they will be presented with and can compare between different sellers. Customers can be either end-users or other firms which use these goods for their own production process or service.
If you consider to sell your product via such online channels to customers in foreign markets, it is nevertheless necessary to assess the same exporting requirements as for traditional sales channels. When selling small quantities to end-users it is important to inform yourself about de minimis rules. Such rules often exempt low-value items from tariffs and have only minimal formal requirements regarding the necessary documentation. You can find more information on de minimis regimes here
Depending on the products you want to sell, additional requirements may need to be assessed. For example, you will need to consider questions about the payment gateways used online, about requirements in your target market about data privacy and the cross-border transfer of data, or questions how to handle warehousing and the logistics.
You can contact chambers of commerce, export promotion agencies, consultancies or similar institutions for help in this process (LINK to useful contacts). The Enterprise Europe Network also offers a general guide for SMEs to e-commerce in Europe which includes information on overseas markets.
The “Entry Price System” establishes a minimum price threshold above which the price of imported produce should remain. It applies to imports of 15 kinds of fresh fruits and vegetables to protect its producers against international competition. These thresholds depend on the product, the partner country and the season. EPS applies in combination with ad valorem import tariffs.
In general law, an act, decision or judgement that affects all parties, not just those directly concerned.
Abbreviation of European Union (EU) which consists of 27 countries (Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Germany, Estonia, Ireland, Greece, Spain, France, Croatia, Italy, Cyprus, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Hungary, Malta, Netherlands, Austria, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovenia, Slovakia, Finland, Sweden), as of 1 February 2020. (UK left the EU on 31/1/2020)
Certificate of origin applicable in preferential trade within the pan-Euro-Mediterranean cumulation area.
Certificate of origin applicable in some EU preferential trade arrangements.
The currency of the countries belonging to the euro area.
Union between EU Member States and 16 Southern Mediterranean countries built on cooperation agreements, that aims to promote economic integration and democratic reform across the EU’s neighbours to the south, in North Africa and the Middle East.