EU-Canada Comprehensive and Economic Trade Agreement
CETA is a trade agreement between the EU and Canada. It cuts tariffs and makes it easier to export goods and services, benefitting people and businesses in both the EU and Canada.
CETA entered into force provisionally on 21 September 2017, meaning most of the agreement now applies. National parliaments in EU countries – and in some cases regional ones too – will then need to approve CETA before it can take full effect.
The agreement at a glance
The EU-Canada Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA) entered into force provisionally on 21 September 2017.
The areas that have not yet entered into force are
- investment protection and the investment court system (ICS)
- portfolio investment market access
- provisions on camcording
- two provisions related to the transparency of administrative proceedings, review and appeal at Member State level
The agreement will take full effect once all Member States’ parliaments have formally ratified it.
What are the benefits for your business?
- eliminates or lowers trade barriers, tariffs and export related costs
- simplifies paper work, technical regulations, customs procedures and rules of origin requirements, product testing requirements, procurement information, intellectual property issues, etc.
- boosts trade in food, animal and plant products while maintaining high levels of human, animal and plant health and safety
- allows your company to bid for tenders at all levels of Canadian government
- creates additional market access in certain sectors, offering better mobility for employees and facilitating mutual recognition of qualifications for professionals
- protects a large variety of geographical indications for high-quality European food products on the Canadian market
- promotes high-quality investment between the EU and Canada
Areas covered include market access rules for goods, technical barriers to trade, sanitary and phytosanitary measures, investment, services, electronic commerce, competition policy, government procurement, intellectual property, regulatory cooperation or dispute settlement. The Annexes include tariff elimination schedules, quotas, procedures, rules of origin, mutual acceptance of conformity assessments etc.
The chapters of the agreement are briefly explained here and the related text can be downloaded.
On 21 September 2017, Canada and the EU already abolished 98% of their tariff lines and agreed to gradually eliminate almost all remaining tariff lines. By 2024, 99% of all tariff lines will have been abolished.
Canadian products subject to a transitional phase-out of the tariffs include
- motor vehicles
- barley and malt
- refined sugar
- potato starch
European products subject to a transitional phase-out of the tariffs include
- motor vehicles
- some fish and seafood products
- raw and refined sugar
- certain grains
- A: duty at zero on 21 September 2017
- B: duty to be reduced to zero in equal cuts over 3 years
- C: duty to be reduced to zero in equal cuts over 5 years
- D: duty to be reduced to zero in equal cuts over 7 years
- E: duty is exempt from tariff elimination
- S: duty remains the same for 5 years after which they shall be removed in three equal stages on January 1 of year 8
- AV0 + EP: the ad valorem duty equal zero at entry into force; the specific duty resulting from the entry price system applicable for these originating goods shall be maintained.
Both sides have agreed to eliminate 100% of tariff lines for industrial products, of which of which 99.6% upon entry into force in the case of Canada and 99.4% upon entry into force in the case of the EU. Amongst the few products not liberalised at entry into force are a limited number of automotive products, which will be liberalised on a reciprocal basis over 3, 5 or 7 years (17 products in the Canadian tariff offer and the corresponding products in the EU offer). Canada will liberalise its remaining tariffs on ships over 7 years (i.e. by 2024).
On the entry into force, Canada eliminated duties for 90.9% of all its agricultural tariff lines. By 2023, this will increase to 91.7%.
For sensitive agricultural products, there will be a special treatment:
Tariff rate quotas
Both sides apply tariff rate quotas (TRQs) on certain products including Canadian beef, pork and sweetcorn as well as European cheese. These are specific volumes of goods, which will be entitled to preferential tariff treatment in a given timeframe.
Importing from Canada
Once the allocations are calculated by the EU Commission and made public, EU member countries must issue import or export licences for the quantities applied for within the respective tariff quotas.
The basic rules for simultaneous examination are defined in the Commission Regulation 1301/2006 laying down common rules for the administration of import tariff quotas for agricultural products managed by a system of import licences.
The allocation rates of the EU TRQs, in terms of import licences issued, are published every month and are accessible through the Meat Market Observatory.
The following regulations define how the EU manages its different TRQs for CETA
- the Commission Implementing Regulation on opening and providing for the administration of Union tariff quotas for fresh and frozen beef and veal and pig meat originating in Canada
Exporting to Canada
- Canada applies an annual model for allocation of dairy products quotas
- the application for quotas takes place in the first half of November and return and redistribution of unused quotas take place on 1 August
- to be eligible to receive a quota you need to be a Canadian resident and to be active in the cheese sector
More information on the allocation of the TRQs for dairy products exported from the EU to Canada under CETA can be found under “Notices” on Global Affairs Canada website
The Notices to Importers set out the eligibility criteria to obtain an allocation under each respective TRQ. The Notices also provide information on the administration of TRQs in general and on the process for submitting an application. Application forms and related appendices are attached to each Notice.
Furthermore, note that
- fruit and vegetables remain subject to the EU’s entry-price system
- tariffs will be maintained on poultry and eggs
Wines and spirits
Specific tariffs on EU wines and spirits entering Canada were eliminated at entry into force of CETA.
For spirits such as gin, vodka and whisky, CETA addresses non-tariff barriers that significantly hampered the EU’s capacity to penetrate the Canadian market, notably by
- applying the cost-of-service-differential fee (imposed by Canada on imported wines and spirits) based on volume and not value, and calculating it in a more transparent manner, lowering the cost for EU producers to sell their products in Canada
- freezing the number of Canadian off-site private outlets, which are only open to Canadian producers, and which are an alternative to the monopoly of the provincial liquor boards
- preventing out-of-province activities of certain liquor boards, which have led to unfair competition on Canadian territory and in third countries
- abolishing Canadian requirements to blend imported bulk spirits with local spirits before bottling (this requirement prevented imported bulk spirits from being labelled as geographical indications upon bottling in Canada)
CETA includes both the 1989 EU-Canada Agreement on Alcoholic Beverages and the 2004 EU-Canada Wines and Spirits Agreement, offering strong legal guarantees for European and Canadian wine and spirit traders. Minor amendments to the 2004 Agreement are set out in Annex 30-B of CETA.
Canada fully eliminated all tariffs on fisheries products at the entry into force.
In parallel to lifting customs duties, the EU and Canada will develop sustainable fisheries by using monitoring, control and surveillance measures, as well as by fighting illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing.
Rules of origin
Rules of origin
Your product needs to comply with certain rules that prove its origin in order to qualify for the preferential rate.
Where can I find the rules of origin?
The rules of origin are set out in Protocol on rules of origin and origin procedures of the EU-Canada Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA) (OJ L 11, 14.01.2017, p. 465). Please consult also the detailed guidelines on rules of origin.
Is my product 'originating' according to the EU-Canada CETA?
For your product to qualify for the lower or zero preferential tariff under CETA, your product must originate in the EU or Canada.
A product 'originates' in the EU or in Canada, if it fulfils one of the following requirements
- is wholly obtained in the EU or Canada
- is produced exclusively from materials originating in the EU or Canada
- has undergone sufficient production in the EU or Canada in compliance with the product specific rules set out in Annex 5
See also Introductory notes to Annex 5.
Examples of product-specific rules in EU trade agreements
- the value-added rule – the value of all of the non-originating materials used cannot exceed a certain percentage of the ex-works price of the product
- the change of tariff classification – the production process results in a change of tariff classification between the non-originating materials and the final product (for instance production of paper (Harmonised System Chapter 48) from non-originating pulp (Harmonised System Chapter 47)
- specific operations – a specific production process is required, for example spinning of fibres for yarns. Such rules are mostly used in the textile and clothing, and chemical sectors
A combination of these different rules is possible with the different rules being fulfilled alternatively or in combination.
Tips and tricks to help comply with the product specific rules
- the tolerance rule allows the producer to use non-originating materials that are normally prohibited by the product specific rule up to 10% of the product's ex-works price
- this tolerance cannot be used to exceed any maximum-value threshold of non-originating materials listed in the product-specific rules
- specific tolerances apply to textiles and clothing classified in HS Chapters 50 to 63, which are included in Annex 1
CETA provides for three ways of cumulating origin
- bilateral cumulation - materials originating in Canada can be counted as originating in the EU (and vice versa) when used in the production of a product
- full cumulation - allows account to be taken of the working or processing carried out on non-originating materials in the EU or Canada to help comply with the product specific rule
- enabling clause for extended cumulation - materials originating in a common partner of a free trade agreement can be counted as originating in the EU or in Canada when used in the manufacturing of a product. This provision is conditional upon agreement by the Parties on the applicable conditions
Originating products must be transported from the EU to Canada (and vice-versa) without being further processed in a third country.
Some operations can be conducted in a third country if the products remain under customs supervision
- any other operation necessary to preserve products in good condition or to transport the product to the territory of the EU or Canada
- splitting consignments
Refunding of duties previously paid on non-originating materials used to produce a product that is exported under a preferential tariff is allowed only in the first 3 years after the entry into force of CETA, i.e. until 21 September 2020.
If you want to claim a preferential tariff, you will have to follow the origin procedures and have your claim verified by the customs authorities of the country into which you are importing your goods. The procedures are set out in Section C of the Protocol on rules of origin of the agreement.
How to claim preferential tariff treatment?
In the EU, no proof of origin is required when the total value of the products does not exceed
- €500 in the case of small packages or
- €1,200 in the case of products forming part of travellers' personal luggage.
Self-declaration by the exporter
Exporters can self-declare that their product originates in the EU or Canada by providing an origin declaration.
In the EU it can be completed either
- by an exporter registered in the Registered Exporter System (REX)
- by any exporter provided that the total value of the products does not exceed €6,000
The same REX number can be also used for some other EU preferential trade agreements (for example the EU’s trade agreement with Japan).
- the text of the origin declaration can be made out in any of the official languages of the EU and can be found in Annex 2 of the Protocol on rules of origin
- the origin declaration should appear on an invoice or on any commercial document that describes the originating product in sufficient detail to enable its identification
- the origin declaration remains valid for 12 months from the date it was completed by the exporter
- normally the statement on origin will be for one consignment, but in Canada it may also cover multiple consignments of identical products during a period not exceeding 1 year
Verification of origin
The customs authorities may verify whether a product imported is indeed originating or fulfills other origin requirements.
In case of doubt, the customs authority may require an importer to demonstrate that a product for which the importer claims preferential tariff treatment was shipped in compliance with the transport rules.
Verification is based on the following principles
- administrative cooperation between customs authorities of the importing and the exporting country
- checks on the origin of the products done by local customs. Visits of the importing country to the exporter are not allowed
Once the verification is concluded, the authorities of the importing country make the final determination of origin and inform the authorities of the importing party of the results.
Practical guide on CETA’s provisions on rules of origin
Technical rules define specific characteristics that a product should have, such as design, labelling, marking, packaging, functionality or performance, and are designed for example to protect human health, safety or the environment. However, it can be costly for traders to comply with different requirements in different markets.
EU and Canadian technical rules and regulations have been made more compatible, so that businesses can sell the same product, or the same product with fewer modifications, into both markets. This allows small companies, in particular micro-enterprises, to compete with larger companies and to participate in international supply chains and e-commerce.
CETA also has provisions to ensure transparency - for instance, that interested persons on either side can comment on proposed technical regulations that Canada or the EU may develop).
Furthermore, the EU and Canada have agreed to strengthen the links and cooperation between their standards-setting bodies as well as their testing, certification and accreditation organisations.
Facilitating certification for regulated products
The EU and Canada have agreed to strengthen the links and cooperation between their standards-setting bodies as well as their testing, certification and accreditation organisations.
CETA sets out provisions that help to avoid unnecessary disruptions and ensure transparency (for instance, that interested persons on either side can comment on proposed technical regulations that Canada or the EU may develop).
Conformity assessment – mutual acceptance
Canada and the EU have agreed to accept mandatory conformity assessment certificates issued by recognised conformity assessment bodies (CABs) located in the EU, and vice versa for the sectors covered by the CETA Protocol, to prove compliance with Canadian or EU requirements.
The Protocol on the mutual acceptance of the results of conformity assessment, replaces the existing mutual recognition agreement (MRA) and extends the product coverage, with a possibility for further expansion.
The products covered by the protocol are
- electrical and electronic equipment, including electrical installations and appliances, and related components
- radio and telecommunications terminal equipment
- electromagnetic compatibility (EMC)
- construction products
- machinery, including parts, components, including safety components, interchangeable equipment, and assemblies of machines
- measuring instruments
- hot-water boilers, including related appliances
- equipment, machines, apparatus, devices, control components, protection systems, safety devices, controlling devices and regulating devices, and related instrumentation and prevention and detection systems for use in potentially explosive atmospheres (ATEX equipment)
- equipment for use outdoors as it relates to noise emission in the environment
- recreational craft, including their components
How to find the approved CABs?
- bodies recognised under the existing MRA will continue to be so under CETA
- for a new conformity assessment body to be recognised, the designating party must provide the other side the information listed in Annex 3 to the protocol
NANDO Database contains Notified and Designated Organisations and other relevant information on Conformity assessment.
- list of approved conformity assessment bodies designated by Canada
- list of approved conformity assessment bodies designated by the EU Member States
CETA further streamlines approval processes, reduces costs and improves the predictability of trade in animal and plant products
- all products imported into the EU need to comply with applicable sanitary and phytosanitary standards, and vice versa
- find information and requirements for export of food products to Canada
- requirements for import of food products into the EU
The Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) sets the policies and regulations for imports of food, agricultural inputs and agricultural products.
The Canada Border Services Agency (CBSA) is responsible for the initial import inspection of food, agricultural inputs and agricultural products.
Examples of labeling requirements for food products in Canada
- linguistic requirements
- common name
- net quantity
- ingredients and allergens
- nutrition facts table
- dealer identity
- 'Best Before', 'Packaged on' and expiry dates
- storage instructions
- country of origin
- standard of identity
Find more labeling requirements on the Industry Labelling Tool of the Canadian Food Inspection Agency.
This is a list of regulations that you may find useful when exporting your food products to Canada
- Food and Drugs Act and regulations
- Consumer Packaging and Labelling Act and regulations
- Canada Agricultural Products Act and regulations
- meat inspections and regulations
- fish Inspections and regulations
- Safe food For Canadians Act and regulations
Animals and animal products
CETA confirms the existing EU-Canada collaboration in the veterinary field based on a high level of mutual trust, and it includes a further simplification of the approval process for exporters.
- Canada re-opened its beef market for nineteen EU Member States
- in event of a disease outbreak (so-called regionalisation), the parties have agreed to minimise trade restrictions and trade from unaffected areas can continue without interruption or lengthy reapproval processes
Requirements for animals and animal products exports to Canada
- CFIA weblink with import information
- General Terrestrial Animal Health - imports
- Import and Interprovincial Requirements for Dairy Products
- fish and seafood - imports
- meat and poultry products - imports
- EU Member States Meat Inspection Systems Approval Status
Plant, fruits and vegetables
CETA sets up new procedures to simplify and accelerate the approval process for plants, fruit and vegetables by Canada.
CETA allows Canada to replace the current country-by-country and product-by-product approach by EU-wide assessments and approval procedures for fruit and vegetables.
The aim is to create a more predictable regulatory environment for exporters.
For all product categories, the parties agreed to establish fast-track procedures for items identified as priorities.
Information and requirements on Plant and Plant Product Exports to Canada
CETA builds on the mutual recognition of good manufacturing practices and inspections of pharmaceutical factories already in place between the EU and Canada, and reduces duplicate inspections.
This means that as a pharmaceutical manufacturer you will be facing significantly smaller administrative burdens and costs and EU and Canadian regulators can make better use of their resources by reducing duplicate inspections, and instead focusing on markets where there are higher risks. Concretely
- inspections carried out in EU territory by any EU Member State authority are accepted by Canada and vice versa
- inspections carried out in third countries can also be recognised
In today's global economy, 40% of finished medicines marketed in the EU come from overseas, and so do 80% of active pharmaceutical ingredients used to make medicines available in the EU.
Find the specific rules and requirements for your product in My Trade Assistant.
Technical Barriers to Trade
Although technical rules are important, they can at times act as a barrier to international trade and can thus be a considerable burden for you as an exporter.
- if you think you are facing a trade barrier that slows your business down or prevents you from exporting, you can tell us
- report what is stopping your exports to Canada using the online form and the EU will analyse your situation and take appropriate action.
Customs clearance documents and procedures
The agreement ensures more transparent and simplified customs procedures to facilitate trade and reduce costs for businesses.
The Step by step guides describe the different types of documents you should prepare for the customs clearance of your products.
Depending on your product, the customs authorities may require all or some of the elements below
- commercial invoice (find the specific requirements regarding its form and content in My Trade Assistant)
- packing list
- import licences for certain goods
- certificates showing your product complies with mandatory product regulations, such as health and safety requirements, labeling and packaging
- proof of origin - origin declaration
For detailed information about the documents you need to present for customs clearance for your product, go to My Trade Assistant.
Procedures for proving and verification of origin
For a description of how to prove the origin of your products to claim a preferential tariff and of the rules relating to the verification of origin by customs authorities, please refer to the section on rules of origin above.
For information on customs procedure for import and export in general visit DG Taxation and Customs Union.
Intellectual Property and Geographical Indications
CETA offers better intellectual property rights protection for European companies exporting innovative, artistic, distinct and high-quality products to Canada and offers protection for pharmaceutical products and geographical indications.
Canada has strengthened its border measures against counterfeited trademarks, pirated copyright goods and counterfeit geographical indication goods, by introducing a possibility for customs to detain suspected fake goods.
The trade agreement also foresees modern rules to protect and enforce intellectual property rights.
Copyright in the digital age
With CETA, Canada has agreed to align its copyright protection regime with the following World Intellectual Property Organisation (WIPO) ‘internet treaties’
- the WIPO Copyright Treaty
- the WIPO Performances and Phonogram Treaty
The internet treaties lay down norms preventing unauthorised access to and use of creative works online or in digital form that are important for our of our creative industries.
The agreement contains important provisions regarding limitations to the liability of internet service providers for infringing content, when they comply with a number of conditions, such as a system of effective notification of such content.
Canada has also agreed to ensure that rights holders can effectively use technology to protect their rights and to license their works online
- for example, protection and effective remedies are provided against the circumvention of technological measures (such as encryption) used by rights holders to protect their rights
- furthermore, it is prohibited to deliberately alter or delete electronic ‘rights management information’ — that is, information accompanying any protected material, and identifying the work, its creators, performer or owner, and the terms and conditions for its use
Canada also agreed to better protect European artists’ rights by giving performers the exclusive right to authorise or prohibit the broadcasting by wireless means and the communication to the public of their performances.
These rights will ensure that artists, both European and Canadian, are rewarded for their creativity and have the incentives to continue to create new artistic works
- European artists can obtain royalties from, for example, café and retail establishments that play music to attract consumers
- Canada will ensure that a single equitable remuneration will be paid for broadcasting by wireless means or for any communication to the public, and this remuneration will be shared between the relevant performers and phonogram producers
Plant variety protection
Canada also agreed to strengthen the protection of plant varieties on the basis of the 1991 Act of the International Convention for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants (UPOV).
This means that innovative plant varieties that can lead, for example, to better yields, will be protected and are therefore likely to be introduced more quickly onto the Canadian market to the benefit of farmers and consumers.
The EU is a major provider of new plant varieties. This important research and innovation activity is protected by a sui generis type of intellectual property called the Community plant variety right. This is not related to the use of genetically modified organisms.
Action against counterfeits
Canada also agreed to strengthen its border measures against counterfeited trademarks, pirated copyright goods and counterfeit geographical indication goods, namely by introducing a possibility for customs to detain fake goods ex officio
- Canada’s competent authorities may act on their own initiative to temporarily detain goods suspected of infringing an intellectual property right
- brands do not have to be individually registered with Canadian customs to benefit from protection
Canada will adopt or maintain procedures under which a rights holder may request its competent authorities to suspend the release of, or detain, goods suspected of infringing an intellectual property right.
Canada has also introduced the possibility for judicial authorities to take necessary provisional measures and to issue cease and desist orders directly against intermediaries that would bring counterfeit goods into the market.
CETA improves intellectual property rights for innovative pharmaceuticals in three ways
- innovators holding a pharmaceutical patent obtain the right to appeal marketing authorisation decisions in Canada in the same manner as other producers already could
- Canada commits to its current regime of data protection (6 + 2 years), thus providing legal certainty in an area where long-term investments are essential
- Canada will put in place a patent term restoration system along the lines of the EU system to compensate for unjustified delays in the marketing approval process, including a maximum period of supplementary protection (2 years) - the parties agreed on the possibility for exceptions for the purpose of export to third countries
Find more information about IP protection in the EU.
Geographical indications of wines and spirits protected in Canada and the EU are listed respectively in Annex III(a) and Annex IV(a) of the 2004 agreement on trade in wines and spirit drinks.
In addition to the Geographical Indications (GI) protected under the EU and Canada Wines and Spirits agreement integrated in CETA, Canada has agreed to protect 143 geographical indications - distinctive food and drink products from specific towns or regions in the EU.
Canada will protect these traditional European products from imitations in much the same way as the EU does. It will be illegal to mislead consumers about the true origin of a product, for example by using flags falsely evoking a protected EU GI or the country where that GI product comes from. EU rights holders will be able to use an administrative process to uphold GIs rights in Canada, rather than rely only on lengthier and more complex proceedings in the domestic court system.
The list may be extended to other products in future if the EU and Canada agree.
More information about the protection of GIs in Canada thanks to CETA can be found in this practical guide.
With regard to the GIs listed under the 2004 agreement on trade in wines and spirit drinks, in order to be protected in Canada, the right holders of these GIs, need to register their GIs with the Canadian Intellectual Property Office.
The procedure to register is explained here.
CETA ensures legal certainty for EU and Canadian services suppliers by binding a high level of liberalisation in Canada and the EU.
The EU gains greater access to the Canadian market in particular for maritime services.
Progressive liberalisation and transparency
Canada cannot introduce new quotas or new discriminatory measures against EU service suppliers, except in a limited set of sensitive sectors. The agreement also guarantees EU service providers can benefit from
- a higher level of market access going beyond Canada's WTO commitments
- most future liberalisation that Canada may undertake
Canada has removed a number of limitations on citizenship and residency conditions for a range of professionals to practice in Canada, including
In telecommunications and postal and courier services, Canada has locked in future liberalisation for the first time.
A new opening of the Canadian maritime transport market will make it easier for EU maritime operators and their larger vessels to operate in Canada for feedering on the important route between Montreal and Halifax.
Both ports are significant on the Canadian east coast. Montreal is a large port handling 1.4 million standard containers (total of import and export containers in 2015) whereas Halifax handles 0.4 million twenty-foot equivalent units (TEUs) (2015).
The EU is by far the world leader in dredging services. With CETA, Canada is also opening up its market in dredging activities to EU operators, a market which is estimated to be worth between CAD 150 million - 400 million per year (approx. €104 million - 278 million per year).
In addition to the ambitious market access commitments undertaken, CETA also includes innovative and strong regulatory disciplines that complement and enhance the market access commitments undertaken by the two parties.
These regulatory disciplines include one of the most extensive and comprehensive sets of mutually binding disciplines on domestic regulation, dealing with licensing or authorisation regimes for nearly all services and investment activities. The text ensures fair and transparent regimes for all applicants and makes the authorisation process as smooth as possible.
Movement of professionals
The agreed package on temporary entry of professionals includes the following benefits
- EU companies can post their intra-corporate transferees to Canada for up to 3 years - building on previous agreements, this benefit applies generally to all sectors
- an extended duration of stay for professionals - contractual service suppliers or independent professionals (defined in the agreement) will be able to stay in the other party’s territory for a period of 12 months (double what was previously possible)
Contractual service suppliers benefit from better entry and stay conditions (such as non-discriminatory treatment with respect to Canadian suppliers) in additional sectors. These include
- Advisory and consultancy services related to
- telecommunication services
- postal and courier services
- insurance and insurance-related services
- other financial services
- Maintenance and repair of equipment, such as
- vessels, rail transport equipment
- motor vehicles, motorcycles, snowmobiles and road transport equipment
- aircraft and parts thereof
- metal products, non-office machinery, and other types of equipment and household goods
- Related scientific and technical consulting services
- Environmental services
New profiles: the preferential access to Canada’s market and the non-discriminatory treatment in Canada will also apply to new categories of EU suppliers, as defined in the agreement: investors, short-term business visitors and technologists.
Canada will extend to spouses of EU intra-corporate transferees a treatment equivalent to that granted to spouses of Canadian intra-corporate transferees in the EU.
Mutual recognition of qualifications
To facilitate the mobility of highly skilled professionals between the EU and Canada, CETA establishes a framework for mutual recognition of professional qualifications and determines the general conditions and guidelines for the negotiation of profession-specific agreements.
CETA provides a detailed framework for the negotiation and conclusion of Agreements on mutual recognition of professional qualifications (MRAs).
The agreement leaves it up to the associations of regulated professions of both parties to initiate the process of negotiating an MRA, by providing recommendations to the relevant CETA committee, and to agree on the specific conditions. Once the associations agree on the principles and following the procedures set out in the framework, the MRA becomes legally binding, ensuring that European professionals can have their qualifications recognised by the competent authorities in Canada and vice versa.
With CETA, EU companies can now bid for Canadian government tenders at all three levels of Government procurement: federal, provincial and municipal.
In Canada, Provinces and territories have jurisdiction over public goods such as
- health care
- intra-provincial transportation.
- local transportation
- school boards
- public utilities, etc.
The procuring entities covered by CETA can be found in annexes 19-1 to 19-8
CETA also brings legal certainty that Canadian public agencies and bodies will not be able to discriminate against European companies – i.e. to restrict the companies’ access to a public tender.
Suppliers can challenge procurement decisions that they believe run contrary to the obligations of the Agreement. In Canada, the Canadian International Trade Tribunal (“CITT”) performs this role.
Canada has also agreed to make the tendering process more transparent by publishing all of its public tenders on a single procurement website in a due time. At present, this website provides a tool to search for procurement opportunities from the (Federal) Government.
Other government procurement (provincial and territorial governments) currently advertise tender notices on their own procurement websites or on an electronic tendering system operated by a third party service provider.
Once CETA enters into force definitively, it will offer EU and Canadian investors greater predictability, transparency and protection for their investments in Canada and in the EU respectively.
CETA’s provisions on investment protection and the new investment court system (ICS) will ensure a high level of protection for investors, while fully preserving the right of governments to regulate and pursue public policy objectives such as the protection of health, safety or the environment.
The ICS represents a clear break from the old Investor to State Dispute Settlement (ISDS) approach and demonstrates the shared determination of the EU and Canada to establish a fairer, more transparent and institutionalised system for the resolution of investment disputes.
The investment provisions in CETA will also replace the eight existing bilateral investment agreements between certain EU Member States and Canada.
The threshold for the review of acquisitions of Canadian companies under the Investment Canada Act is substantially increased from the current CAD 354 million to CAD 1.5 billion. This applies to all EU investors other than those that are state-owned enterprises.
If you plan on investing in Canada you can find out more here.
NB: Investment protection and the investment court system, as well as portfolio investment market access, will not be provisionally applied in line with Council Decision (EU) 2017/38 of 28 October 2016 on the provisional application of the Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA) between Canada, of the one part, and the European Union and its Member States, of the other part (OJ L 11, 14.1.2017, p. 1080—“1081 (http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=uriserv:OJ.L_.2017.011.01.1080.01.ENG).
Links and contacts
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47 Clarence Street, Suite 450, Ottawa, Ontario, K1N 9K1
Tel.: +1 6135621811
260 Dalhousie Street, Suite 210, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 7E4
Tel.: +1 6137894222
55 Metcalfe Street, Suite 850, Ottawa, Ontario, K1P 6L5
Tel.: +1 6132882233
Trade Representative in Canada: Business France
154 University Avenue Suite 400, Toronto, M5H 3Y9
Tel.: +1 4169771257
Montreal: Bureau Business France,
1501 McGill College, Bureau 1120, Montreal, QC H3A 3M8
Tel.: +1 5146704000
1111 Melville Street, Suite 320 Vancouver, British Columbia V6E 3V6
Tel.: +1 6046390923
42 Sussex Drive, Ottawa, Ontario, K1M 2C9
480 University Avenue, Suite 1500, Toronto, Ontario, M5G 1V2
Tel.: +1 416598-3355
1 Waverley Street, Ottawa, Ontario, K2P 0T8, Canada
Tel.: +1 613 232 1101
80 MacLaren Street Ottawa, Ontario, K2P 0K6
Tel.: +1 6132386271
1075 Bay Street, Suite 600, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 2B1
Tel.: +1 4165150133
Hungarian Investment Promotion Agency
175 Bloor Street East, Suite 1109, South Tower, Toronto
Tel.: +1 6473492550
299 Waverley St., Ottawa, K2P 0V9
Tel.: +1 6132307560
2 Bloor St. W, Suite 1501, Toronto, Ontario, M4W 3E2
Tel.: +1 4169345033
Varette Building, 130 Albert St, Ottawa, Ontario, K1P 5G4
Tel.: +1 6132336281
365 Bloor Street East, Suite 1802, Toronto, Ontario, M4W 3L4
Tel.: +1 4165981566
1000 rue Sherbrooke ouest, Bureau 1720, Montreal, Québec, H3A 3G4
Tel.: +1 5142840265
275 Slater St, Ottawa, Ontario, K1P 5H9
Tel.: +1 6132322401
350 Sparks St, Ottawa, Ontario, K1R 7S8
Tel.: +1 6132386014
150 Metcalfe Str #1600, Ottawa, Ontario, K2P 1P1
Tel. +1 61356754 58
Honorary Consulate in Ottawa
World Exchange Plaza, 45 O’Connor Street, Suite 1150, Ottawa, Ontario, K1P 1A4
Tel.: +1 6137554091
2200 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Washington, DC. 20008
Tel. +1 2022654171
3300 Bloor St W, Etobicoke, Ontario, M8X 2X3
Tel.: +1 4162070922
350 Albert Street, Suite 2020 Ottawa, Ontario, K1R, 1A4
Tel.: +1 613 237 503
Consulate General in Toronto
1 Dundas Street West, Suite 2106, Toronto, Ontario, M5G 1Z3
Tel.: +1 416 595 2402
Foreign Investment Department:
Department of Economic Development:
Economic Promotion Department:
Information and Communication Department:
438 University Avenue, Suite 1810, Toronto, Ontario, M5G 2K8
443 Daly Ave, Ottawa, Ontario, K1N 6H3
Tel. +1 6137890468
2603 Lake Shore Blvd. West, Toronto, Ontario, M8V 1G5
Tel.: +1 4162525471
Tel.: +1 4164645405
1177 West Hastings Street, Suite 1600, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6E 2K3
Tel. +1 6046883458
3501 Avenue du Musée, Montreal, Québec, QC H3G 2C8
Tel. +1 6137890468
438 University Avenue, Suite 1400, Toronto, Ontario, M5G 2K8
Tel.: +1 4169214925
645 Island Park Dr, Ottawa, Ontario, K1Y 0B8
Tel.: +1 6137290883
1010, rue Sherbrooke Ouest, Bureau 610, étage 6, Montreal, Québec, H3A 2R7
Tel.: +1 5145048235
655 Rideau St, Ottawa, Ontario, K1N 6A3
Tel.: +1 6137893709
50 Rideau Terrace, Ottawa, Ontario, K1M 2A2
Tel.: +1 6137494442
150 Metcalfe Street Suite 2200, Ottawa, Ontario, K2P 1P1
Tel.: +1 6135655781
151 Slater Street, Suite 801, Ottawa, Ontario, K1P 5H3
Tel.: +1 6132360409
170 University Ave #602, Toronto, Ontario, M5H 3B3
Tel.: +1 4169670488
74 Stanley Ave, Ottawa, Ontario, K1M 1P4
Tel.: +1 6137472252
2 Bloor Street West, Suite 2120, Toronto Ontario M4W 3E2
Tel.: +1 4169228152
377 Dalhousie Street, Ottawa Ontario, K1N 9N8
Tel.: +1 6132448200
Chambers of commerce and business associations
480 University Avenue, Suite 1500, Toronto, Ontario, M5G 1V2
Tel.: +1 4165987087
A list of local and bilateral EU chambers of commerce and business associations in Canada can be found on the website of the European Union Chamber of Commerce in Canada (http://www.euccan.com). EUCCAN is an umbrella organisation for these very diverse structures and organisation.
These seven factsheets explain what CETA is and benefits
- An overview of CETA - (other languages) The 7 main parts of the agreement
- CETA and agriculture - (other languages) How EU agriculture benefits
- The strategic benefits of CETA - (other languages) Working together to shape globalisation
- Safeguards in CETA - (other languages) Six ways CETA guarantees the EU's interests
- Standards and values in CETA - (other languages) A progressive agreement for sustainable development
- In figures - (other languages) The EU-Canada trade relationship
- The negotiating process - (other languages) Reaching a deal
Find out how to take part in public procurement processes in Canada
- Practical guide for EU businesses on how to take part in public procurement processes in Canada
- Guide on public procurement processes and how they are organised in Canada and its provinces
Learn more about the business opportunities offered by the EU-Canada Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement
Company stories and testimonials
In September 2018, the CETA Joint Committee agreed a specific SMEs recommendation that each Party provides online information to SMEs of the other Party about CETA and that the EU and Canada work together so that the trade agreement benefits SMEs.