Classifying edible vegetable roots

This guide will help you understand the classification of vegetable roots in order to determine the applicable custom duty rates and non-tariff measures applicable to your products.

The edible vegetables and roots are classified in the European Classification of Goods (CN) according to

  • their genus (plant family) - for example brassicas such as broccoli and cabbage
  • their state - they may be fresh, chilled, frozen, dried or provisionally preserved
  • their intended use - for example products intended for animal fodder and herbs for pharmaceutical or similar purposes are covered elsewhere


  • alliaceous vegetables - vegetables that belong to the Allium plant family (see below)
  • allium - vegetables in the Allium family which include onions, shallots, leeks and garlic
  • brassica - vegetables in the brassica family which include cabbages, kale, brussels sprouts and cauliflowers
  • genus - group of similar plant types which term forms the first part of the plant's Latin or botanical name
  • genera - plural of genus
  • leguminous vegetables - vegetables that belong to the Leguminosae plant family (see below)
  • leguminosae - vegetables in the Leguminosae family groupings include peas (pisum), beans (phaseolus and vigna) and lentils (lens)
  • species - subdivision of a plant family or genus which forms the second part of the Latin or botanical name
  • variety (var.) - this indicates a subdivision of a species

Frozen vegetables

Frozen vegetables are classified under heading code 0710. They can be either uncooked, or cooked by steaming or boiling in water before being frozen.

Frozen vegetables must be maintained at a temperature of no more than -12°C. This must be consistent throughout the product, to make sure it's thoroughly frozen right the way through.

If a frozen product isn't frozen down to -12°C then it can't be classified under heading code 0710. It must be classified as fresh or chilled. In particular, products described as 'frozen garlic' must be classified under heading code 0703 (fresh or chilled) if they do not meet the freezing temperature requirement.

As well as the types of vegetable specifically listed under subheading codes 0710 10 to 0710 90, the following are also classified under heading code 0710, if frozen to the required temperature

  • truffles
  • capers
  • marrows and pumpkins
  • aubergines
  • fennel and cress
  • certain herbs, such as parsley and chervil

Roots and tubers

Certain roots and tubers with a high starch or inulin content are classified under heading code 0714. (Inulin is a naturally-occurring carbohydrate that is extracted from certain roots). Products that are classified under this heading include

  • manioc (or cassava)
  • sweet potatoes
  • Jerusalem artichokes
  • arrowroot
  • salep (flour made from the dried roots of orchids)
  • sago pith

These products may be with or without skin. They can be fresh, chilled, frozen or dried, and may be whole, sliced or in pellet form. Subheading code 0714 10 98 10 covers pellets of manioc flour and meal. When dispersed in water, at least 95 per cent by weight of the pellet - calculated on the dry matter - must pass through a woven metal wire cloth sieve with a mesh size of 2 mm.

Chinese water chestnuts

Heading code 0714 also covers Chinese water chestnuts. Although they don't have a high starch content, they are included here because of their high inulin content. But the Caltrop variety of water chestnuts is classified as nuts in Chapter 8 under heading code 0802.

leguminous vegetables

Leguminous vegetables are classified under heading code 0708 if they're fresh or chilled, and under heading code 0713 if they're dried. Dried products are included whether they're intended for food use or for sowing.

Leguminous vegetables classified under these headings include

  • peas (pisum sativum)
  • beans (vigna, phaseolus species)
  • broad beans and horse beans (vicia faba)
  • chickpeas (garbanzos)
  • lentils (lens)

Some legumes aren't covered in Chapter 7 and are classified elsewhere. For example, soya beans are classified in Chapter 12 under heading code 1201. Locust beans are classified in the same chapter, under heading code 1212.

Provisionally preserved vegetables

Provisionally preserved vegetables are classified under heading code 0711. They must not be suitable for eating immediately. They're generally packed in casks or barrels and are raw ingredients that have been provisionally preserved for transport and storage before being used in food manufacturing. They must stay in that state and remain unsuitable for immediate consumption.

This preservation rule means that vegetables such as olives or gherkins that have been pickled in brine or vinegar (and can be eaten straight from the jar) are not provisionally preserved and are classified elsewhere. If they can be eaten with no further treatment or processing they're classified in Chapter 20 under heading codes 2001, 2002, 2003 or 2005.

Herbs and spices

There is no single classification in the tariff for herbs. They can be covered in Chapter 7, Chapter 9 or Chapter 12, depending on their purpose and on the part of the plant they come from. For example, leaves are classified in a different chapter from seeds.

Herbs covered in Chapter 7

Some herbs are classified as vegetables and are covered under heading codes 0709 to 0712 in this chapter. They include

  • parsley
  • chervil
  • tarragon 
  • coriander leaves 
  • dill leaves 
  • sweet marjoram

Herbs covered in Chapter 9

Some herbs are classified as spices and are covered in Chapter 9. These include

  • thyme
  • bay leaves
  • dill seed
  • coriander seed
  • cumin seed

Herbs covered in Chapter 12

Chapter 12 covers herbs that are classified under heading code 1211 as types of plant used in perfumery, in pharmacy, or for insecticidal, fungicidal or similar purposes. These include

  • basil
  • borage
  • hyssop
  • mint
  • rosemary
  • rue
  • ginseng roots
  • sage
  • wild marjoram (oregano)

Many of these herbs are also used in cooking, but they can never be classified in Chapter 7 as vegetables. They must always be classified under heading code 1211.

Classifications and Latin names for edible vegetables

Common Name


Latin Name

Heading Code

Artichoke - globe


Cynara scolymus

0709 10

Artichoke - Japanese or Chinese


Stachys asieboldii
Stachys affinis

0706 90

Artichoke - Jerusalem


Helianthus tuberose

0714 90



Solanum melongena

0709 or 0710

Bamboo shoot


Bambusa vulgaris
Phyllostachys pubescens

0709 90

Bean shoot

Bean sprout (soy bean)
Mung bean

Glycine max
Phaseolus aureus

0709 90

Broccoli - sprouting


Brassica oleracea

0704 90

Broccoli - headed


Brassica oleracea

0704 10


White beet
Spinach beet
Silver beet
Leaf beet
Seakale beet

Beta vulgaris

0709 90


Chow chow

Sechium edule

0709 90

Chervil (other than rooted)


Antriscus cerefolium

0709 90

Chervil (rooted)



0706 90

Chinese cabbage


Brassica chinensis

0704 90

Chinese water chestnuts


Eleocharis dulcis and Eleocharis tuberose

0714 90

Cocoyam - new


Xanthosoma sagitiifolium

0714 90

Crow garlic

Wild leek

Allium ampeloprasum

0703 90


Elephant's ear
Old cocoyam

Colocasia esculenta
Colocasia antiquorum

0714 90


Hyacynth bean
Bonavist bean

Dolichos lablab

0708 90


Curly chicory

Cichorium endivia var. crispa

0705 29




0709 90

Lotus root


Nelumbium nuciferum

0714 90

Marjoram - sweet (dried)


Origanum majorana
Majorana hortensis

0712 90

Marjoram - sweet (fresh)


Origanum majorana
Majorana hortensis

0709 90

Marrows (vegetable)


Cucurbita pepo var. medullosa

0709 90

Mustard green


Brassica chinensis

0704 90


Ladies fingers

Hibiscus esculentus

0709 90


Garden spinach

A triplex hortensis

0709 70

Oxalis - notched


Oxalis crenata

0709 90


Chinese cabbage

Brassica chinensis

0709 90

Parsley (not rooted)


Petroselinium crispum

0709 90

Parsley (turnip rooted)

Hamburgh parsley

Petroselinium crispum var. tuberose

0709 90



Pastinaca sativa

0706 90



Rumex patienta

0709 90


Wong Bok

Brassica pekinensis

0704 90



Curcurbita pepo

0709 90

Purslain (common)



0709 90


Sand leek

Allium scorodoprasum

0703 90



Rheum rhaponticum

0709 90


Vegetable oyster
Oyster plant

Tragopogon porrifolius

0706 90


Winter savory
Summer savory

Satereja montana
Satereja hortensis

0709 90

Savoy cabbage


Brassica oleracea var. bullata

0704 90


Black salsify

Scorzonera hispanica

0706 90



Crambe matitima

0709 90



Sium sisarum

0709 90



Rumex acetosa

0709 90

Spring onion


Allium cepa

0703 10

Sweet potato


Ipomoea batatas

0714 20



Artemisia dracununculu

0709 90



Nasturtium officinale
Nasturtium microphyllum

0709 90



Dioscorea (various)

0714 90



Curcurbita pepo var. medullosa

0709 90

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